February 2017
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As part of the enriched science course, we will be discussing the extensions for each AKS. These are highlighted in bold.

AKS Indicators of Achievement
A – Characteristics of Science
identify questions and problems that can be answered and solved through scientific inquiry (GPS, ITBS, ACT) (6SC_A2005-1)
design and conduct investigations using scientific method (GPS, ITBS, ACT) (6SC_A2005-2) 2a – design an appropriate scientific investigation utilizing scientific process skills (collecting evidence, developing hypotheses, manipulating variables, formulating explanations, and revising investigations based on findings) (GPS)

2b – understand the importance of maintaining accurate records in science (GPS)

2c – understand hypotheses can be valuable, even if they turn out not to be completely accurate descriptions (GPS)

2d – explain the impact new information may have on existing, well-established scientific theories (GPS)

2e – recognize scientists oftentimes collaborate on research design, but also conduct independent studies (of the same question) to prevent bias (GPS)

apply standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations (GPS) (6SC_A2005-3) 3a – follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus (GPS)

3b – demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations (GPS)

3c – follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations (GPS)

3d – follow correct procedures for ensuring the ethical treatment of animals in research (GPS)

use appropriate scientific tools, techniques and technologies to gather, analyze and interpret data (GPS, ITBS, ACT) (6SC_A2005-4) 4a – read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, mass, elapsed time, rates, and temperature, and choose appropriate units for reporting various quantities (GPS)

4b – use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical and keyboard files, and create simple files (GPS)

4c – recognize that scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance scientific inquiry (GPS)

apply computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and developing conclusions (GPS) (6SC_A2005-5) 5a – analyze scientific data by using, interpreting, and comparing numbers in several equivalent forms (GPS)

5b – apply the metric system to a scientific investigation that includes metric conversions (GPS)

5c – explain the relationship between accuracy and precision and the importance of each (GPS)

think critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations (GPS, ITBS, ACT) (6SC_A2005-6) 6a – develop predictions, models and conclusions using evidence

6b – draw conclusions based on analyzed data (GPS)

6c – question scientific claims and arguments effectively (GPS)

6c1 – recognize different conclusions can be drawn from the same data (GPS)

6c2 – question claims based on vague attributions (such as “Leading doctors say…”) or on statements made by people outside the area of their particular expertise (GPS)

communicate scientific ideas clearly (GPS) (ITBS, ACT) (6SC_A2005-7) 7a – report findings using standard language skills and science terminology (note the difference between writing for scientific purposes and literary purposes) (GPS)

7b – organize scientific information using appropriate tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal (GPS)

7c – write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure (GPS)

read scientific materials to establish context for subject matter, develop vocabulary and to be aware of current research (GPS) (6SC_A2005-8) 8a – read grade-level appropriate text (both informational and fictional) from a variety of genres and modes of discourse (GPS)

8a1 – read technical text related to various subject areas

8b – discuss messages and themes from text and relate to other subject areas (GPS)

8b1 – respond to text using multiple modes of discourse (i.e. debate)

8b2 – evaluate the merit of texts

8b3 – examine the author’s purpose in writing

8b4 – examine the features of disciplinary texts

8c – use content vocabulary in writing and speaking (GPS)

8d – apply strategies for determining content and contextual meaning for unknown words (GPS)

8e – examine relationship between life experiences and subject area content (GPS)

analyze the importance of understanding systems, models and scales when exploring scientific and technological matters (GPS) (6SC_A2005-9) 9a – observe and explain how parts are related in systems (i.e. weather systems, solar system and ocean system) including how the output of one part of a system can become the input to other parts (example: El Nino’s effect on weather) (GPS)

9b – compare and contrast how several different models (i.e. physical replicas, pictures, analogies) can be used to represent the same concept and evaluate their usefulness given their purpose (GPS)

9c – estimate the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole (GPS)

discuss the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and exhibit these traits in efforts to understand how the world works (GPS) (6SC_A2006-1)
B – Astronomy
explain the effects of the relative position of the sun, Earth and moon (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_B2005-10) 10a – explain how Earth’s movement in space produces the day/night cycle

10b – relate the tilt of Earth to the distribution of sunlight throughout the year and its effect on climate (seasons) (GPS)

10c – demonstrate the phases of the moon by showing the alignment of the earth, moon and sun (GPS)

10d – explain the alignment of the earth, moon and sun during solar and lunar eclipses (GPS)

10e – Extension:  describe the formation and surface features of the moon

analyze the composition of our solar system (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_B2005-11) 11a – compare and contrast the planets in terms of composition; size relative to the Earth; surface and atmospheric features; relative distance from the Sun; and ability to support life (GPS)

11b – explain how gravity and inertia govern motion in the solar system (GPS)

11c – describe the characteristics of comets, asteroids and meteors (GPS)

11d – locate the solar system in the Milky Way Galaxy and our galaxy within the universe (GPS)

11e – Extension:  identify and classify stars and star systems

11e1 – Extension:  define a light year and indicate its value

11e2 – Extension:  describe the life cycle of a star

11e3 – Extension:  interpret a Hetzsprung-Russell diagram

11e4 – Extension:  identify major galaxy types

11e5 – Extension:  analyze constellations and star groups

11f – Extension:  indicate the size, composition, and characteristics of the sun

11g – Extension:  compare an object’s weight and mass on Earth to other locations in the solar system

analyze current scientific views about the formation of the universe and how those views evolved (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_B2005-12) 12a – relate the Nature of Science to the progression of basic historical scientific models (geocentric, heliocentric) as they describe the formation of our solar system and the Big Bang theory as it describes the formation of the universe with the sun at its center (GPS)

12a1 – describe how Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo contributed to the knowledge of our solar system

12b – relate the use of probes, satellites, telescopes, and spectroscopes to the study of space

C – Hydrology
analyze the significant role of water in earth processes (GPS, ITBS, CE) (6SC_C2005-14) 14a – explain a large portion of the Earth’s surface is water, consisting of oceans, rivers, lakes, underground water and ice (GPS)

14a1 – illustrate the water cycle and relate various atmospheric conditions to its stages (GPS)

14b – describe the composition, location and subsurface topography of the world’s oceans (GPS)

14b1 – identify the chemical and physical properties of ocean water

14b2 – model the features of the ocean floor

14c – explain the causes of waves, currents and tides (GPS)

14d – analyze water conservation practices and issues

14e – Extension: discuss the distribution and quality of freshwater (groundwater and surface water) on the Earth

D – Meteorology
explain how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_D2005-15) 15a – describe the composition and structure of the Earth’s atmosphere

15b – describe atmospheric factors that interact to cause weather (heat energy, air pressure, winds, and moisture)

15b1 – demonstrate land and water absorb and lose heat at different rates, and explain the resulting effects on weather patterns (GPS)

15b2 – relate how moisture evaporating from the oceans (and other sources of water such as lakes, rivers, and plants) affects the weather patterns of the Earth’s surface (GPS)

15b3 – compare the four major types of air masses and how they create fronts that affect weather patterns

15b4 – explain how clouds form, and identify the three basic types of clouds

15b5 – differentiate between global and local winds

15b6 – investigate different types of weather phenomena (lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards and floods)

15b7 – interpret weather maps and understand weather forecasting

15c – relate unequal heating of land and water surfaces to form large global wind systems and weather events such as tornadoes and thunderstorms (GPS)

15c1 – discuss factors that determine climate

15d – Extension: identify the layers of the Earth’s atmosphere

15e – Extension: explain the importance of each layer of the Earth’s atmosphere

15f – Extension: classify the climate zones of the Earth

E – Geology
investigate the composition and formation of Earth’s surface (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_E2005-16) 16a – compare and contrast Earth’s crust, mantle and core including temperature, density and composition (GPS)

16b – classify rocks by their formation (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary) (GPS)

16b1 – explain the rock cycle

16b2 – investigate the contributions of minerals to rock composition (GPS)

16b3 – discuss the importance of mineral and rock resources to society

16c – describe the composition of soil as consisting of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material (GPS)

describe processes that cause gradual changes in Earth’s surface (GPS, ITBS) (6SC_E2005-17) 17a – demonstrate how the deformation (e.g., tension, compression and shearing) of the Earth’s plates produces landforms

17b – recognize lithospheric plates constantly move and cause major geological events on the earth’s surface (GPS)

17b1 – demonstrate how convection currents within the earth produce movement

17b2 – describe the effects of plate movement on the lithosphere, including the ocean floor or under ocean basins

17b3 – explain the processes that produce volcanoes and earthquakes

17b4 – analyze the relationship between volcanoes and earthquakes

17c – explain the effects of physical processes (weathering, erosion and deposition) on geological features (GPS)

17c1 – describe the formation of a river system

17d  – discuss the effects of human activity on the erosion of the Earth’s surface (GPS)

F – Paleontology
describe Earth’s geologic history (6SC_F2005-18) 18a – interpret the geologic history of Earth based on the principles of uniformitarianism, superposition, and original horizontality

18a1 – apply the law of superposition to determine the relative age of rocks

18b – describe how fossils show evidence of the changing surface and climate of Earth (GPS)

18b1 – describe the evidence used to provide historical background for the geologic time scale

18b2 – Extension: model the formation of mold/cast fossils and trace.  Understand the formation of preserved remains, carbon film, and petrified fossils.

18b3 – discuss Earth’s history and recognize that change occurs constantly and slowly over time

18c – Extension: explain how scientists have determined the age of Earth

G – Ecology
compare various sources of energy and describe their uses and methods of conservation (GPS) (6SC_G2005-19) 19a – explain the role of the sun as the major source of energy and its relationship to wind and water energy (GPS)

19b – identify renewable and nonrenewable resources (GPS)

19b1 – discuss how consumption of energy impacts the environment and society

19b2 – discuss the importance of conserving energy

19c – describe methods for conserving natural resources such as water, soil and air (GPS)

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