Science Fair

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Topic Information:

ANIMAL SCIENCES: NO VERTEBRATE ANIMALS!
Study of animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals. Animal ecology, physiology, animal husbandry, cytology, histology, entomology, ichthyology, ornithology, herpetology,etc.

Development - The study of an organism from an egg to birth or hatching.
Ecology - The science of the interactions and relationships among animals and animals and plants with their environments.
Pathology - The study of the nature of animal disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences.
Physiology - The study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
Population Genetics - The study of genetic composition of populations in order to understand the evolutionary forces that select for particular genes.
Systematics - Systematic classification of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them; taxonomy.

CHEMISTRY (Code: CH)
The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.

Analytical Chemistry - The science and art of determining composition of materials in terms of the elements and compounds that they contain.
General Chemistry - The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.
Inorganic Chemistry - The branch of chemistry that deals with reactions and properties of all chemical elements and their compounds, excluding hydrocarbons but usually including carbides and other simple carbon compounds (such as CO2, CO and HCN.)
Organic Chemistry - The study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives, both naturally occurring and synthetic.
Physical Chemistry - Physical chemistry is concerned with the physical properties of materials, such as their electrical and magnetic behavior and their interaction with electromagnetic fields.

COMPUTER SCIENCE
The study of information processes, the structures and procedures that represent processes, and their implementation in information processing systems. It includes systems analysis and design, application and system software design, programming, and datacenter operations.

Algorithms, Data Bases - The study of algorithms and databases. Software developed to manage any form of data including text, images, sound and video.
Artificial Intelligence - The study of the ability of a computer or other machine to perform those activities that are normally thought to require intelligence, such as solving problems, discriminating among objects, and/or responding to voice commands.
Networking and Communications - The study of systems that transmits any combination of voice, video, and/or data among users.
Computational Science, Computer Graphics - The study of the use of computers to perform research in other fields, such as computer simulations. Also includes the study of computer graphics or the transfer of pictorial data into and out of a computer by various means (analog-to-digital, optical scanning, etc).
Software Engineering, Programming Languages - The study of software designed to control the hardware of a specific data processing system in order to allow users and application programs to make use of it.
Computer System, Operating System - The study of system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations of a computer.

EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE
The study of sciences related to the planet Earth (Geology, minerology, physiography, oceanography, meteorology, climatology, speleology, sesismology, geography, atmospheric sciences, etc.)

Climatology, Meteorology, Weather - the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting.
Geochemistry, Mineralogy - The study of the chemical composition of the earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils. Mineralogy is focused around the chemistry, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties of minerals.
Historical Paleontology - The study of life in the geologic past as recorded by fossil remains.
Geophysics - Branch of geology in which the principles and practices of physics are used to study the earth and its environment.
Planetary Science - The study of planets or planetary systems and the solar system.
Tectonics - The study of the earth’s structural features as related to plate structure, plate movement, volcanism, etc.

ENGINEERING: Electrical and Mechanical
The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, processes, and systems.

Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Controls - Electrical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the technology of electricity, especially the design and application of circuitry and equipment for power generation and distribution, machine control, and communications. A computer engineer is an electrical engineer with a focus on digital logic systems or a software architect with a focus on the interaction between software programs and the underlying hardware architecture.
Mechanical Engineering - The branch of engineering that encompasses the generation and application of heat and mechanical power and the design, production, and use of machines and tools.
Robotics - The science or study of the technology associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots and of general purpose, programmable machine systems.
Thermodynamics, Solar - Thermodynamics involves the physics of the relationships and conversions between heat and other forms of energy. Solar is the technology of obtaining usable energy from the light of the sun.

ENGINEERING: Materials and Bioengineering
The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical machines and systems.

Bioengineering - Involves the application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and medicine, as in the development of aids or replacements for defective or missing body organs; the development and manufacture of prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices, drugs and other therapies as well as the application of engineering principles to basic biological science problems.
Chemical Engineering - Deals with the design, construction, and operation of plants and machinery for making such products as acids, dyes, drugs, plastics, and synthetic rubber by adapting the chemical reactions discovered by the laboratory chemist to large-scale production.
Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering - Includes the planning, designing, construction, and maintenance of structures and public works, such as bridges or dams, roads, water supply, sewer, flood control and, traffic.
Industrial Engineering, Processing - Concerned with efficient production of industrial goods as affected by elements such as plant and procedural design, the management of materials and energy, and the integration of workers within the overall system. The industrial engineer designs methods, not machinery.
Material Science - A multidisciplinary field relating the performance and function of matter in any and all applications to its micro, nano, and atomic structure, and vice versa. It often involves the study of the characteristics and uses of various materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics and their potential engineering applications.

ENERGY & TRANSPORTATION
The study of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, clean transport, and alternative fuels.

Aerospace and Aeronautical Engineering, Aerodynamics - The design of aircraft and space vehicles and the direction of the technical phases of their manufacture and operation.
Alternative Fuels - Any method of powering an engine that does not involve petroleum (oil). Some alternative fuels are electricity, hythane, hydrogen, natural gas, and wood.
Fossil Fuel Energy - Energy from a hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel.
Vehicle Development - Engineering of vehicles that operate using energy other than from fossil fuel.
Renewable Energies - Renewable energy sources capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
The study of managing mans’ interaction with the environment.

Bioremediation - Biological remediation of environmental problems using plants. The use of biological agents, such as bacteria or plants, to remove or neutralize contaminants, as in polluted soil or water. Includes phytoremediation, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, biodegradation, etc.
Ecosystems Management - The integration of ecological, economic, and social principles to manage biological and physical systems in a manner that safeguards the long-term ecological sustainability, natural diversity, and productivity of the landscape. An ecological approach to managing the environment.
Environmental Engineering - The development of processes and infrastructure for the supply of water, the disposal of waste, and the control of pollution. Includes alternative engineering methodologies to meet society’s needs in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner. Preservation of the environment by preventing the contamination of, and facilitating the clean up of, air, water, and land resources.
Land Resource Management and Forestry - A landscape approach to sustainable resource management, coastal management, biological diversity management, land use planning, or forest succession management. It often includes a resource planning component as well as implementation methodologies. An example would be the management of longleaf pine forests including controlled burns to imitate natural processes.
Recycling and Waste Management - The extraction and reuse of useful substances from discarded items, garbage, or waste. The process of managing, and disposing of, wastes and hazardous substances through methodologies such as landfills, sewage treatment, composting, waste reduction, etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
The analysis of existing conditions of the environment.

Air Pollution and Air Quality - The study of contamination of the air by such things as noxious gases, elements, minerals, chemicals, solid and liquid matter (particulates), etc. Air pollution is the study of such contaminates in concentrations that endanger the health of humans, plants, and/or animals.
Soil Contamination and Soil Quality - The study of contamination of the soil by such things as noxious elements, minerals, chemicals, solids, liquids, etc. Soil contamination is the study of such contaminates in concentrations that endanger the health of humans, plants, and/or animals.
Water Pollution and Water Quality - The study of contamination of the water by such things as noxious elements, minerals, chemicals, solids, etc. Water pollution is the study of such contaminates in concentrations that endanger the health of humans, plants, and/or animals.

MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols. The deductive study of numbers, geometry, and various abstract constructs, or structures. Mathematics is very broadly divided into foundations, algebra, analysis, geometry, and applied mathematics, which includes theoretical computer science.

Algebra - The study of solutions of one or several algebraic equations, involving the polynomial functions of one or several variables. This includes the study of arithmetic and number theory.
Analysis - The study of mathematical analysis involves the use of infinite processes. The basic branch of analysis is calculus. The general problem of measuring lengths, areas, volumes, and other quantities as limits by means of approximating polygonal figures leads to the integral calculus.
Computer/Applied Mathematics - Branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains.
Geometry - The study of the shape, size, and other properties of figures and the nature of space.
Probability and Statistics - Mathematical study of phenomena characterized by randomness or uncertainty and the study of statistical tools used to analyze, interpret and present data.

PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY
Physics is the science of matter and energy and of interactions between the two. Astronomy is the study of anything in the universe beyond the Earth.

Atoms, Molecules and Solids - The study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms.
Astronomy - The study of matter in outer space, especially the positions, dimensions, distribution, motion, composition, energy, and evolution of celestial bodies and phenomena.
Biological Physics - The study of the physics of biological processes.
Instrumentation and Electronics - Instrumentation is the process of developing means of precise measurement of various variables such as flow and pressure while maintaining control of the variables at desired levels of safety and economy. Electronics is the branch of physics that deals with the emission and effects of electrons and with the use of electronic devices.
Magnetics and Electromagnetics - Magnetics is the study of magnets and their effects; electromagnetics is the physics of electricity and magnetism.
Nuclear and Particle Physics - Nuclear physics is the study of the components, structure, and behavior of the nucleus of the atom. It is especially concerned with the nature of matter and with nuclear energy. Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them.
Optics, Lasers, and Masers - Optics is the study of light and vision, chiefly the generation, propagation, and detection of electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths greater than x-rays and shorter than microwaves. Lasers are devices that emit highly amplified and coherent radiation of one or more discrete frequencies. Masers are devices for the creation, amplification, and transmission of an intense, highly focused beam of high-frequency radio waves.
Theoretical Physics, Theoretical or Computational Astronomy - Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions rather than experimental processes. Theoretical physics attempts to understand the natural world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, and predicting physical phenomena. Theoretical or computation astronomy uses these methods in the study of astronomical objects or phenomena.

PLANT SCIENCES
Study of plant life. Ecology, agronomy, horticulture, forestry, plant taxonomy, physiology, pathology, plant genetics, hydroponics, algae, etc.

Agriculture/Agronomy - The application of soil and plant sciences to land management and crop production. Includes soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate related to crop production.
Development - The study of plant life from egg to germination.
Ecology (plant/animal or plant/plant interactions) - The science of the interactions and relationships between plants and plants and animals within their environment.
Photosynthesis - The study of the process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, using sunlight as the source of energy with the aid of chlorophyll.
Plant Physiology ( Molecular, Cellular, Organismal) - The study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms/plants.
Population Genetics - The study of genetic composition of populations in order to understand the evolutionary forces that select for particular genes.
Plant Systematics and Evolution - Systematic classification of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them; taxonomy.


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